Fundamentals of Microcontroller and Applications

Updated on 2019/03/21 12:50

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A Microcontroller (or MCU for Microcontroller Unit) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit. In modern terminology, it is a system on a chip or SoC. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of Ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips.

Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.

This course takes you through the world of todays most important breed of microcontrollers - 8051 based, PIC  along with their development, features, real world interfacing and the embedded communication systems.



Fundamentals of Microcontroller and Applications




Examination Scheme

Theory online50
Theory Paper50


  • Knowledge of numbering systems and Boolean algebra.
  • Knowledge of combinational and sequential logic circuits.

Course Objectives

  • To understand the differences between microcontrollers and microprocessors learn microcontroller architecture & describe the features of a typical microcontroller.
  • To use the 8051 addressing modes and instruction set and apply this knowledge to perform programs - arithmetic & logic operations, data & control transfer operations,input & output operations.
  • To define the protocol for serial communication and understand the microcontroller development systems.
  • To build and test a microcontroller based system; interface the system to switches,keypads, displays, A/D and D/A converters.
  • To provide students with the concepts and techniques required in designing computer hardware interfaces embedded software for microcontrollers and measurement of various analog parameters.

Course Outcomes

Having successfully completed this course, the student will be able to:

  • Differentiate between microprocessor and microcontroller.
  • Describe the architecture and features of various types of the microcontroller.
  • Demonstrate programming proficiency using the various addressing modes and all types of instructions of the target microcontroller.
  • Program using the capabilities of the stack, the program counter the internal and external memory, timer and interrupts and show how these are used to execute a programme.
  • Write assemble assembly language programs on PC and download and run their program on the training boards.
  • Design electrical circuitry to the Microcontroller I/O ports in order to interface with external devices.
  • Write assembly language programs and download the machine code that will provide solutions real-world control problems such as fluid level control, temperature control, and batch processes.

Syllabus and Notes

Unit 1

[Main Page: Unit-1]

Unit 2

[Main Page: Unit-2]

  • Addressing modes of 8051, Instruction set of 8051, Stack and Stack Related instruction, Data exchange, byte level logical operations, bit level logical operations, rotate and swap operations, instruction affecting flags, incrementing, decrementing, arithmetic operations, jump and recall instruction, Call and return subroutines.

Unit 3

[Main Page: Unit-3]

  • Assembly language programming of 8051.
  • Counters and timers in 8051, timer modes and its programming.

Unit 4

[Main Page: Unit-4]

  • Interrupts- timer flag interrupt, serial port interrupt, external interrupts, software generated, interrupt control and interrupt programming.
  • Serial communication and its programming.
  • Serial data input, output, Serial data modes, interfacing of 8051 with PC through RS232.

Unit 5

[Main Page: Unit-5]

  • Microcontroller development tools- the study of the simulator, emulator, assemblers, programmers, a cross assembler for microcontrollers.
  • The study, interfacing, and programming of PPI 8255 - mode 0, 1, BSR mode.
  • Interfacing of 8051 with 8255 for expanding of I/O.
  • Programming and Interfacing of 8051 with 8 bit ADC (0809) and DAC (0808).

Unit 6

[Main Page: Unit-6]

  • Part A: (Theoretical Treatment only)
    • Measurement of parameters such as matrix (4 x 4) Keyboard pressure, temperature, flow, level, voltage, current, power (KW), power factor and frequency using 8051.
  • Part B: Interfacing and Programming
    • Interfacing of 8051 with a single key, LED, Relay, voltage, current, speed control of dc motors, Stepper motor control (speed /position).

LAB Experiments

List of Experiments:

Compulsory Experiments:

  1. Study and use of 8051 Microcontroller trainer kit.
  2. Assembly Language Program for arithmetic operation of 8 bit numbers.
  3. Assembly Language Program for finding largest number and smallest number from a given array of 8-bit numbers.
  4. Assembly Language program to arrange 8 bit numbers stored in array in ascending order and descending order.
  5. Assembly Language Program for data conversion.
  6. Assembly Language Program for use of Timer/Counter for various applications.

Any six experiments are to be conducted of following experiments:

  1. Implementation of Serial Communication by using 8051 serial ports.
  2. Programming using cross assembler.
  3. Blinking display of LED’s interfaced with 8051 through 8255.
  4. Interfacing of 8 bit DAC 0808 with 8051 to generate various waveforms.
  5. Interfacing of 8 bit ADC 0809 with 8051 Microcontroller.
  6. Interfacing of relay with 8051.
  7. Stepper motor control by 8051 Microcontroller.
  8. Interfacing of matrix keyboard/ 7 segment display with 8051

Previous Years Questions

  • Pattern 2012 and 2015 Question Papers

Practical/ Oral Exam Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

Online Phase-I (25 Marks)

Online Phase-II (25 Marks)
Unit -3


Assignment 1Assignment 2
Assignment 3Assignment 4
Assignment 5Assignment 6

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Created by Vishal E on 2019/03/21 09:58
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