Internal Security

What is Internal Security?

Internal security is an act of ensuring and keeping peace within the borders of a nation by maintaining the national law and order and defending its people from internal security threats. Responsibility to maintain it lies with agencies ranging from police to paramilitary forces, and in demanding circumstances, the military itself.

Kautilya wrote in the Arthashastra that a state could be at risk from four different kinds of threats – 

  • internal, 
  • external, 
  • externally-aided internal and 
  • internally-aided external. 
The internal security scenario in India has a mix of all the shades of threats visualized by Kautilya.


Poor criminal justice system and large scale corruption leads to nexus between criminals, police and politicians with the result that organised crime goes on unabated.Intense illegal movement in many of the bordering districts has brought about a total demographic transformation as the original inhabitants are being forced to sell their lands and flee to safer places. Besides Jihadi terrorism, Left Wing Extremism has emerged as country’s most serious internal security challenge. It assumed serious proportions after 2004 when PWG, MCC, Party Unity along with other splinter groups, merged together to form CPI (Maoist).

  1. the deviation of the youth being psychologically controlled by people who threaten internal security.
  2. digital psycho-extremism 
  3. ethnic insurgency, militancy or terrorism
  4. racial and cultural unrest in states of the northeast
  5. China fishing in the troubled waters of the north-east;
  6. Left Wing Extremism 
  7. Technological advancement/changes

  8. Emerging cyber crimes and cyber security threats

  9. Unreformed criminal justice system

  10. Nexus of the police, politician and criminals

  11. Money laundering

There are threats to internal security from certain other factors also. These include: 

  • Regional aspirations 
  • Inter-state disputes 
  • River water sharing issues 
  • Communal problems 
  • Caste tensions 
  • Demand for reservations, etc


  • Long pending police reforms
  • Effective mechanism of coordination between center and state regarding governance

Reasons why internal security situatuation is deteriorated:

  • externally sponsored and supported, others are by-products of political mismanagement, lack of governance and corruption.
  • NGOs and think tanks which secretly function very skillfully provide extremists with intellectual and ideological space by projecting them as social revolutionaries.
  • the absence of the feeling of ‘Nation First’