Location of India

Extent of Indian Borders

  • The mainland of India, extends from
    • Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south
    • Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Gujarat in the west. 
  • Our southern boundary extends upto 6°45' N (not 8°04' N) latitude in the Bay of Bengal. 
  • India’s territorial limit further extends towards the sea upto 12 nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.
Problem of Time Difference

From the values of longitude, it is quite clear that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of our country. While the sun rises in the northeastern states about two hours earlier as compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer, Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India show the same time.

In this context, the standard meridian is very useful. There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E has been selected as the ‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time zone observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30 which is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes.

There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones.

India locationIndia is situated in between 8°04' to 37°06' north latitude and 68°07' to 97°25' east longitude. It lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. 

  • On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea on the west, the Himalayas ito the north, the Bay of Bengal on the east, the Lakshadweep Sea to the southwest. 
  • The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its immediate southeast, and the Maldives are some 125 kilometres to the south of India's Lakshadweep Islands across the Eight Degree Channel
  • India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, some 1,200 kilometres southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia.

Extreme Points of India

india neighbouring countries

Kanyakumari is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. 

The northernmost point which is under Indian administration is Indira Col, Siachen Glacier.

India's territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline. India has the 18th largest Exclusive Economic Zone of 2,305,143 km2.

1 Statute mile = about 1.6 km (1.584 km)
1 Nautical mile = about 1.8 km (1.852 km)

Extreme Points of India
Heading Location Administrative entity Bordering entity
North
(disputed, administered)
Near Indira Col, Siachen Glacier Jammu and Kashmir Xinjiang, China
North
(disputed, claimed)
Next to Kilik Pass in the Karakorum Mountains on Xinjiang-Gilgit-Baltistan border Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Xinjiang, China
North
(undisputed)
Next to Kang La pass at the head of Miyar Valley, Lahaul and Spiti district Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir
South Indira Point in the Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands Indian Ocean
South (mainland) Cape Comorin near Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu Indian Ocean
East
(disputed, administered)
Near Kibithu in Anjaw district Arunachal Pradesh Kachin State, Myanmar
East (undisputed) Near Vijaynagar, in the Changlang district Arunachal Pradesh Kachin State, Myanmar
West Sir Creek in Kutch, near the Guhar Moti Gujarat Indus River Delta

Location on the World Map 

India lies entirely in northern hemisphere and is situated in South Asia. In the world map, the sub-continent of India can be easily located as the peninsula surrounded by the three major water bodies of the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The world famous tourist destination Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep Islands in Arabian Sea increases the prominence of India's location on the world map.

Location of India

India and its Neighbors

India is located in the south-central part of Asia, bordering the Indian ocean and its two arms extending in the form of Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This maritime location of Peninsular India has provided links to its neighbouring regions through the sea and air routes.

Sri Lanka and Maldives are the two island countries located in the Indian Ocean, which are our neighbours. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait.

Country

Capital

Border Length

Bordering States

Afghanistan

Kabul

106 Km

Jammu & Kashmir (PoK)

Bangladesh

Dhaka

4096.7 Km

West Bengal, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura & Assam

Bhutan

Thimphu

699 Km

West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh & Assam

China

Beijing

3488 Km

Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim & Arunachal Pradesh

Myanmar

Naypyidaw, Yangon

1643 Km

Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram & Manipur

Nepal

Kathmandu

1751 Km

Bihar, Uttarakhand, UP, Sikkim & West Bengal

Pakistan

Islamabad

3323 Km

Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan & Gujarat