Indian security framework

Indias' Security Structure

Indian Armed Force:

The defence forces (Indian Armed Force) are the primary force responsible for the security of the country, and they come under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.

1.    Indian Army.

2.    Indian Air Force .

3.    Indian Navy .

Central Armed Police Force (CAPF):

The centre maintains various central armed police forces and paramilitary forces, of which four guard India’s borders, and three perform specialised tasks. the border-guarding forces are occasionally deployed for counter-insurgency operations and internal security duties as well. These are:

1.    Assam Rifles (AR)

2.    Border Security Force (BSF)

3.    Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

4.    Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

5.    Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

6.    National Security Guard (NSG)

7.    Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Paramilitary Forces of India:

1.    Indian Coast Guard Personnel – Indian Armed Force

2.    Assam Rifles (AR) – CAPF

3.    Special Frontier Force (SFF) – Intelligence

Central Police Organisation:

1.    Intelligence Bureau

2.    Central Bureau of Investigation

3.    Bureau of Police Research & Development. (BPRD)

4.    National Crime Records Bureau

5.    National Investigation Agency

6.    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad.

7.    North Eastern Police Academy, Shillong.

8.    National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science. (NICFS)


1.    Intelligence Bureau (IB) – Internal Intelligence.

2.    Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) – External Intelligence – Similar to the CIA of the US  and Mossad of Israel.

3.    National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO).

4.    Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).

5.    Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT).

6.    Joint Cipher Bureau.

7.    Directorate of Revenue Intelligence.

8.    All India Radio Monitoring Service.

9.    Signals Intelligence Directorate.

10.  Aviation Research Centre.

11.  Directorate of Air Intelligence.

12.  Directorate of Navy Intelligence.

13.  Directorate of Income Tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation).

14.  Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation.

15.  National Investigation Agency – Central agency to combat terrorism.

16.  Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) – Similar to the FBI of US.

17.  Directorate of Enforcement (DE).

18.  Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB).

19.  Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU).



INDIAN POLICE SERVICE (IPS)The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services constituted under Article 312 of the Constitution of India. The IPS officers provide senior level leadership to Police Forces both in the States and at the Centre. The All - India character of the Service gives its members a unique advantage of handling specific problems in the States within the overall perspective of National unity and integrity. The Ministry of Home Affairs is the cadre controlling authority in respect of IPS officers and is responsible for all policy decisions related to the Service, including cadre structure, training, cadre allocation, confirmation, empanelment, deputation, pay and allowances, disciplinary matters, etc.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy (SVP NPA), Hyderabad is the premier police training institution of the country. It has world class police training facilities. It is mandated with

(i) the task of preparing leaders for the Indian Police through training of newly recruited IPS officers and senior officers and

(ii) being the centre of research for studies on subjects related to policing.

The IPS Probationers of 71 Regular Recruit (RR) (2018 batch) have been undergoing training in Basic Course, after completion of Foundation Course for 15 weeks at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie.

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs)

There are five Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) namely Border Security Force (BSF), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) and one Central Paramilitary Force (CPMF) namely Assam Rifles (AR) under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Out of these, AR, BSF, ITBP and SSB are the ‘Border Guarding Forces’ while CRPF is deployed to assist the Civil Administration under the State Governments / UT Administrations in matters relating to maintenance of Public Order, internal security and counter-insurgency. The Rapid Action Force (RAF) and Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) are specialized wings of the CRPF to deal with the riots and Left Wing Extremism/ insurgency respectively. CISF provides security and protection to vital installations of national/strategic importance including Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), airports, atomic power plants, space organizations, industrial units, important national museums, Government buildings in Delhi etc.

In addition, National Security Guard (NSG) is a specialized strike Force trained in the counter terrorism and anti-hijacking operations. It is also entrusted with the task of securing high risk VIPs and acts as sky marshal for securing domestic and international flights.


Fondly known as “Friends of the North East People”, the Assam Rifles was raised as “Cachar Levy” in 1835 and is the oldest Para Military Force in the countryIt has its Headquarters at Shillong and the Force is completely deployed in the North East in Counter Insurgency role and for guarding the Indo-Myanmar Border, spread over 1,643 kilometer. The Force comprises of a Directorate General Headquarter, three Inspectorate General Headquarters, 12 Sector Headquarters, 46 Battalions, one Training Centre and the administrative elements with a total authorised strength of 65,143 personnel.

Civic Action Programme (CAP)Apart from excelling in operations,the AR is also ‘Acting East’ in pursuance of Govt. goals by conducting well planned and focused programmes for the upliftment of the people of the NE through numerous CAPs.The important programmes / activities includes construction of Community Halls, Provision of Water Supply Schemes, establishment of Vocational Training Centres, upliftment of Rural Schools, National Integration Tours for students, Free Medical Camps, Awareness Programmes, Sports Activities for the youth etc.


Border Security Force was raised in 1965 . Over the years, the Force has grown in size and as on date, it has 192 Battalions including 03 NDRF Battalions.

The Force Headquarter is in New Delhi. Its field formations includes 02 Special Directorates General (Spl DsG) i.e. Spl DG (Eastern Command) and Spl DG (Western Command) and 01 Addl. DG {Command HQ (Spl Ops) Raipur}, 13 Frontiers and 46 Sector Headquarters, Water Wing, Air Wing and other ancillary units. The sanctioned strength of BSF as on 31.03.2019 is 2,63,905.

Operational Achievements- Its operational responsibility is spread over 6,386.36 km of International Border with Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is also deployed on the Line of Control (LoC) in J&K under the operational control of the Army.

Overseas Deployment- The Border Security Force has one Formed Police Unit deployed with United Nations Stabilizations Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) since2005.


Raised in the year 1969, CentralIndustrial Security Force (CISF) is providing security cover to 345 units including 61 domestic and international airports and fire protection cover to 102 Industrial Undertakings. In a span of four decades, the Force has grown manifold. With globalization and liberalization of the economy, CISF is no longer a PSU centric organization. Instead, it has become a premier multi-skilled security agency of the country, mandated to provide security to major critical infrastructure installations of the country in diverse regions including terrorist and naxal affected areas. CISF is currently providing security cover to Atomic Power Plants, Space Installations, Defence Production Units, Mines, Oil Fields and Refineries, Major Sea Ports, Heavy Engineering, Steel Plants, Fertilizer Units, Airports, Hydro Electric/Thermal Power Plants, sensitive Government Buildings and Heritage Monuments (including the Taj Mahal and Red Fort) and important Private Sector Units. CISF has also been mandated to provide protection to the VIP protectees of various categories across the country.

The VIP Security wing of CISF called the Special Security Group (SSG) is looking after the security of VVIPs/VIPs.

The specialized task of airport security was assigned to CISF in the year 2000 in the wake of hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight IC-814 to Kandahar.

The CISF Act was amended to enable the Force to provide security, on payment basis, to private/ joint venture industrial undertakings, which are vital for the security and economy of the country.

Overseas Deployment- A contingent of Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) is deployed at United Nations Stabilizations Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) since 2008 and ceased operations in 2018.


Initially raised as the ‘Crown Representative Police’ on 27.07.1939 at Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh, the Force was rechristened as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) after Independence. Since then, the Force has grown in its strength and capabilities. Presently, it has a strength of 246 Battalions and 43 Group Centres, 20 Training Institutions, 7 Arms Workshops and 3 Central Weapon Stores. The Force also has Senior Command/ Supervisory formations, viz 4 Special DG Zones, 21 IG Sectors, 2 IG Ops Sectors, 39 Ranges, 17 Ops Ranges, 4 Hundred bedded Composite Hospitals and 17 Fifty bedded Composite Hospitals besides the Force HQrs / Directorate General at New Delhi. The Force is presently handling a wide range of duties covering law and order, counterinsurgency, anti-militancy and anti-naxal operations. The Force plays a key role in assisting the State Governments and UT Administrations in maintaining public order and countering subversive activities of Naxalites/ militant groups/ Insurgents.

The Force also has 06 Mahila Battalions01 Mahila contingent of 96 Mahilas each in 15 RAF Bns. and 242 Mahila personnel in various ranks are also deployed in Bastariya Battalion meant for fighting naxalism. The strength of the Force is 3,24,824 as on 31.03.2019. In the year 2018-19, Total-235 Battalions (including 06 Mahila, 10 CoBRA Bns & 15 RAF) were deployed in the State of J&K, North East, Naxal affected states for combating terrorism, militancy & insurgency and law and order in the rest of India.

An integrated application software SELO is functioning in CRPF and the same is being used by all offices of CRPF up to the Unit level. It largely caters to Personnel Information System, Payroll & Inventory Management.

Rapid Action Force (RAF) in CRPF

In 1991, 10 Battalions of CRPF were reorganized and converted into 10 Battalions of 04 Companies each of Rapid Action Force (RAF). The personnel in RAF are trained and equipped to be an effective strike Force in communal riots and similar situations. These Battalions are located at 10 communally sensitive locations across the country to facilitate quick response in case of any such incident. All these Battalions are organized on an unattached pattern and are working under the supervision of an Inspector General.

The RAF Coys. are deployed on the request of State Governments for Law and order duties and maintenance of peace during various festivals and communal riots, etc. on short-term basis. In view of the increasing demand of RAF Battalions, Government of India has approved to convert 05 more CRPF executive Battalions into RAF Battalions in the year 2018.

Commando Battalions for Resolute Action in CRPF:

CoBRA- Commando Battalion for Resolute Action, is a specialized force which has been raised to fight Maoists and insurgents in Left Wing Extremism affected areas. Also known as Jungle Warriors, they are selected amongst the CRPF’s personnel based on age and other physical attributes. 10 CoBRA Battalions were raised between 2008-11, they have been trained, equipped and deployed in LWE affected States of Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh as well as Assam & Meghalaya. It is one of the elite Commando units in the country trained to survive, fight and win in the jungles. A CoBRA School for specialized training in Jungle Warfare & Tactics has also been in operation and providing exclusive training to the force personnel.


ITBP was raised in the wake of Chinese aggression in 1962 with a modest strength of 04 Battalions. Originally conceptualized as an integrated “guerrillacum- intelligencecum- fighting Force” selfcontained in supplies, communication and intelligence collection. It has evolved with passage of time into a conventional border guarding Force. Today, ITBP guards 3,488 kms of Indo-China Border and is manning 178 Border Out Posts (BOPs) with altitudes ranging from 9,000 feet to 18,750 feet in the Western, Middle and Eastern Sector of the Indo-China Border from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh. 8 ITBP Battalions are deployed in Maoist affected areas of Chhattisgarh.

The force operates through 05 Frontier Headquarters, 15 Sector Headquarters, 56 Service Battalions, 04 Specialized Battalions, 02 Disaster Management Battalions (DM) and 14 Training Centers with a total sanctioned strength of 89,437 personnel.

Kailash Manasarovar YatraThe Holy Kailash Manasarovar Yatra is planned via two routes i.e. Lipulekh Pass in Uttarakhand and NathuLa in Sikkim.

Disaster Management- ITBP has been designated as the First Responder in the Himalayan region and was the first to establish 07 Regional Response Centers (RRC).

Overseas Responsibilities-  ITBP is providing security to Embassy of India (EOI), Kabul and 04 other Consulates at Jalalabad, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-e- Sharif in Afghanistan.


The Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) is a paramilitary police force under the Ministry of Home affairs responsible for guarding India’s international borders with Nepal and Bhutan. It is one of India’s Central Armed Police Forces, which includes ITBP, BSF, CRPF and CISF. When it was created in 1963, it was called the Special Services Bureau. The name was changed to Sashatra Seema Bal in 2001 after it was given charge of the Nepal border. Besides this, the force is also deployed in Jammu and Kashmir for counter-insurgency operations and anti-Naxal operations in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar. It also provides internal security during elections in various states.

What is the primary role of the SSB?

  • It’s primary role is to physically guard and manage the international border thereby promoting a sense of security and pride amongst the local border population.
  • SSB is the lead intelligence unit for Nepal and Bhutan borders and the coordination agency for national security activities.
  • Besides this, SSB undertakes construction of schools, buildings, toilets, roads under border area developmental plan.
  • It also gives regular guidance and training to unemployed youth in general studies and physical training.
  • In border villages, SSB teaches the border population the best agricultural practices, horticulture, pisiculture etc.
  • SSB has also taken up a unique and important task to adopt and fund the education of the girl child in poor villages along the border and teach them unarmed combat training. This is done to eliminate rampant human trafficking of women across the border.


The Disaster Management Act has made the statutory provisions for constitution of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for the purpose of specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.

  • Two national calamities in quick succession in the form of
    1. Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) and
    2. Gujarat Earthquake (2001)  brought about the realization of the need of having a specialist response mechanism at National Level to effectively respond to disasters. This realization led to the enactment of the DM Act on 26 Dec 2005.
  • NDRF has been proving its importance by highly skilled rescue and relief operations, regular and intensive training and re-training, capacity building & familiarization exercises within the area of responsibility, carrying out mock drills and joint exercises with the various stakeholders.
  • Vision of NDRF is to emerge as the most visible and vibrant multi-disciplinary, multi-skilled, high-tech force capable to deal with all types of natural as well as manmade disasters and to mitigate the effects of disasters.


  • Specialized response during disasters
  • Proactive deployment during impending disaster situations
  • Acquire and continually upgrade its own training and skills
  • Liaison, Reconnaissance, Rehearsals and Mock Drills
  • Impart basic and operational level training to State Response Forces (Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards)
  • Community Capacity Building Programme
  • Public Awareness Campaign
  • Exhibitions : Posters, Pamphlets, literatures


Why it is said to be UNIQUE?

  • It is the only dedicated disaster response force of the world.
  • The only agency with comprehensive response capabilities having multi-disciplinary and multi-skilled, high-tech, standalone nature.
  • Experienced paramilitary personnel specially trained and equipped for disaster response. Capabilities for undertaking disaster response, prevention, mitigation and capacity building


About NSG:

It is a security force of India constituted “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect States against internal disturbances“.

  • It was set up in 1984 as a Federal Contingency Deployment Force to tackle all facets of terrorism in the country.
  • It is under the authority Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The force is a unique combination of personnel on deputation from Indian Army and Central Armed Police Forces.
  • The two components of NSG are 
    1. the Special Action Group (SAG), which consists entirely of Indian Army personnel; and 
    1. the Special Ranger Groups (SRG), which comprises personnel drawn from Central Armed Police Forces and State Police Forces.
  • The chief of the force designated as a Director General is an officer from the Indian Police Service.

After the 26.11.2008 terror attack in Mumbai, four regional Hubs (Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kolkata) were established to reduce the response matrix and to ensure Pan-India footprint. In 2016, the fifth Hub came into existence in Gandhinagar (Gujarat).


What is NATGRID?

National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID) is a centralised agency which stores sensitive personal information on citizens from almost two dozen agencies to be made available for counter-terror investigations.

  • The National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), an attached office of the Ministry of Home Affairs, has been conceived to develop a cutting edge framework to enhance India’s counter-terror capabilities.
  • It is an ambitious counter terrorism programme, which will utilise technologies like Big Data and analytics to study and analyse the huge amounts of data from various intelligence and enforcement agencies to help track suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks.
  • It will connect, in different phases, data providing organisations and users besides developing a legal structure through which information can be accessed by the law enforcement agencies.

The Union Home Ministry has indicated the grid will be fully functional by 2016.



NATGRID is a post Mumbai 26/11 attack measure. It aims to mitigate a vital deficiency — lack of real time information, which was considered to be one of the major hurdles in detecting US terror suspect David Headley’s movement across the country during his multiple visits between 2006 and 2009.


It’s role:

  • NATGRID will become a secure centralised database to stream sensitive information from 21 sets of data sources such as banks, credit cards, visa, immigration and train and air travel details, as well as from various intelligence agencies.
  • The database would be accessible to authorised persons from 11 intelligence and law-enforcement agencies including the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and R&AW on a case-to-case basis, and only for professional investigations into suspected cases of terrorism.



How is it different from NCTC and NIA?

  • Unlike the NCTC and the NIA which are central organisations, the NATGRID is essentially a tool that enables security agencies to locate and obtain relevant information on terror suspects from pooled data of various organisations and services in the country. It will help identify, capture and prosecute terrorists and help preempt terrorist plots.



  • NATGRID is facing opposition on
    1. charges of possible violations of privacy and leakage of confidential personal information.
    2. Its efficacy in preventing terror have also been questioned given that no state agency or police force has access to its database thus reducing chances of immediate, effective action.


Who will head the agency?

  • Recently, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) issued a circular to fill the post of CEO of NATGRID. The circular calls for applicants with a Masters in Electronics, IT or equivalent with an experience of working in the IT-related field for 25 years. Both serving as well as retired government officials can apply.
  • The circular also says that if a private person is hired, his/her salary would be Rs. 10 lakh a month and if it’s a government servant, it will be his last drawn salary or the present salary.

CCTNS project:

  • Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a project initiated in June 2009 which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for evolution of IT-enabled state-of-the-art  tracking system around “investigation of crime and detection of criminals”.
  • It is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of Govt. of India.
  • It will not only automate Police functions at Police station and higher levels but will also create facilities and mechanism to provide public services like registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of case registered at the police station, verification of persons etc.

The project timelines is till March 2015 with provision of one year extension.


What it does?

  • The Project will interconnect more than 15000 Police Stations and additional 5000 offices of supervisory police officers across the country and digitize data related to FIR registration, investigation and charge sheets in all Police Stations.
  • It will not only automate Police functions at Police station and higher levels but will also create facilities and mechanism to provide public services like registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of case registered at the police station, verification of persons etc.
  • In 2015, an additional objective of establishing a basic platform for an Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS) was added to the Project.



The Full implementation of the Project with all the new components would lead to a Central citizen portal having linkages with State level citizen portals that will provide a number of citizen friendly services like Police Verification for various purposes including passport verification, reporting a crime including cyber-crime and online tracking of the case progress etc.

  • The project will enable National level crime analytics to be published at increased frequency, which will help the policy makers as well as lawmakers in taking appropriate and timely action, it will also enable Pan-India criminal/accused name search in the regional language for improved inter-state tracking of criminal movement.
  • This would lead to development of a national database of crimes and criminals.


Impact of the CCTNS Project will lead to:

  • Citizen portals in all states and Centre that will facilitate transparency and speed in police service delivery, online registration of complaints and reporting and search of missing persons and stolen goods in self-service mode.
  • Pan-India search on complete National Crime and Criminal database that is accessible to the Investigating Officers throughout the country.
  • Search facility will be available to Police in regional languages for improved inter-state tracking of criminal movement.
  • Reliable network connectivity to all Police Stations in the country.
  • National level crime analytics that will be published at, increased frequency to help policy and law makers in taking data backed timely actions and in making appropriate policy interventions.
  • Integration with various e-Governance projects such as
    1. Aadhaar,
    2. National Population Register,
    3. Vaahan Project of the Ministry of Surface Transport,
    4. Passport Seva and
    1. National Emergency Response System Project thus increasing the synergies and benefit accrued from these individual systems. It will expedite various kinds of police verification requests and investigation.
  • Advanced features such as biometric based identification, trend and pattern analytics etc. that will be incorporated to enhance hi-tech investigation capability.


Ministry of Home Affairs initiated the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) scheme to fully computerize the process of crime registration, investigation, prosecution etc. in all police stations in the country.    CCTNS is a mission mode project to connect more than 20000 police stations and higher police offices around the country and digitize the functioning of the police stations in order to enable seamless sharing of crime related information among Police Stations, Districts, State headquarters and other agencies, including those at the Government of India level. Additionally, Centre citizen portal is being designed to provide the following online services to the citizens ‐  

  • a. Report a crime
  • b. Report Cyber Crime
  • c. Cyber fraud alert
  • d. Report lost property
  • e. Report missing and found persons
  • f. Police verification services
  • g. Grievances
  • h. Proclaimed Offenders
  • i. Sex offender registry
  • j. Victim compensation
  • k. Legal services
  • l. Anonymous tips
  • m. Locate a Police Station
  • n. Crime Statistics
  • o. Citizen Rights CCTNS project,

Once fully implemented, will strengthen information exchange about crime and criminals among all the police stations in the country which will significantly enhance the effectiveness of the police in investigating cases which will directly benefit the Citizens of the Country. It will also facilitate various online services as indicated above and increase satisfaction level of the people. With integration of Thana, Prosecution, Court and Prison systems, procedural delay of various types will get reduced in Indian courts and better analytics will be available with the key decision makers.


About BRO:

Functioning under the control of the Ministry of Defence since 2015, the BRO is engaged in road construction to provide connectivity to difficult and inaccessible regions in the border areas of the country.

  • It is staffed by officers and troops drawn from the
    1. Indian Army’s Corps of Engineers,
    2. Electrical and Mechanical Engineers,
    3. Army Service Corps,
    4. Military Police and
    1. army personnel on extra regimental employment.
  • Engineering Service and personnel from the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) form the parent cadre of the Border Roads Organisation.
  • Currently, the organisation maintains operations in twenty-one states, one UT (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), and neighbouring countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
  • The BRO operates and maintains over 32,885 kilometres of roads and about 12,200 meters of permanent bridges in the country.

Last modified: Sunday, 10 November 2019, 7:35 AM