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Microwave engineering pertains to the study and design of microwave circuits, components, and systems. Fundamental principles are applied to analysis, design and measurement techniques in this field. The short wavelengths involved distinguish this discipline from Electronic engineering. This is because there are different interactions with circuits, transmissions and propagation characteristics at microwave frequencies.

Some theories and devices that pertain to this field are antennas, radar, transmission lines, space based systems (remote sensing), measurements, microwave radiation hazards and safety measures.

This course will lay the foundation for microwave engineering with the understanding of it's applications.


Microwave Engineering
Microwave Engineering


Fourth Year, Semester I



Examination Scheme

Phase I: In Semester Assessment30
Phase II: End Semester Examination70

Course Objectives

  • To lay the foundation for microwave engineering 
  • To understand the applications of microwave engineering  
  • Carryout the microwave network analysis.

Course Outcomes

After successfully completing the course students will be able to:

  • Formulate the wave equation in wave guide for analysis. 
  • Identify the use of microwave components and devices in microwave applications.  
  • Understand the working principles of all the microwave tubes  
  • Understand the working principles of all the solid state devices  
  • Choose a suitable microwave tube and solid state device for a particular application  
  • Carry out the microwave network analysis 
  • Choose a suitable microwave measurement instruments and carry out the required measurements.

Syllabus and Notes

Unit 1: Transmission Lines and Waveguides

Main Page: Transmission Lines and Waveguides

Unit 2: Microwave Components

Main Page: Microwave Components

Unit 3: Microwave Network Analysis

Main Page: Microwave Network Analysis

Unit 4: Microwave Tubes

Main Page: Microwave Tubes

  • Limitations of conventional tubes, O and M type classification of microwave tubes, reentrant cavity, velocity modulation. O type tubes Two cavity Klystron: Construction and principle of operation, velocity modulation and bunching process Applegate diagram. Reflex Klystron: Construction and principle of operation, velocity modulation and bunching process, Applegate diagram, Oscillating modes, o/p characteristics, efficiency, electronic & mechanical tuning. M-type tubes Magnetron: Construction and Principle of operation of 8 cavity cylindrical travelling wave magnetron, hull cutoff condition, modes of resonance, PI mode operation, o/p characteristics, Applications. Slow wave devices Advantages of slow wave devices, Helix TWT: Construction and principle of operation, Applications.

Unit 5: Microwave Solid State Devices

Main Page: Microwave Solid State Devices

  • Microwave bipolar transistor, FET, MESFET, Varactor Diode, PIN Diode, Shottky Barrier Diode, Tunnel Diode, TEDs, Gunn Diodes, IMPATT diode and TRAPATT diode. Structural details, Principle of operation, various modes, specifications, and applications of all these devices.

Unit 6: Microwave Measurements

Main Page: Microwave Measurements

  • Measurement devices: Slotted line, Tunable detector, VSWR meter, Power Meter, S-parameter measurement, frequency measurements, Power measurement, Attenuation measurement, Phase shift measurement, VSWR measurement, Impedance measurement, Q of cavity resonator measurement

Microwave Lab

List of the Experiments (Minimum 8 experiments are to be performed).

  1.  Study of microwave components and equipments.
  2. Reflex Klystron as a Microwave source in laboratory and plot its mode characteristics.
  3. Measurement of the free space wavelength of the microwave (for TE 10 mode) with the help of the X-band microwave test bench and verify with its theoretical calculation.
  4. Study of Gunn Diode & PIN Modulator as a Microwave source. Plot the V-I characteristics. 
  5. Verification of Port Characteristics of Microwave Tees (E, H, E-H Planes).
  6. Verification of Port Characteristics of Directional Coupler. Calculation of coupling factor insertion loss and directivity.
  7. Verification of Port Characteristics of Isolator and Circulator. Also calculation of insertion loss and isolation in dB.
  8. Study of slotted section with probe carriage. Measure the VSWR for various values of terminating impedances (open/short/matched termination).
  9. Study the Network Analyzer, Carry out the measurements of s-parameter measurement for the various microstrip components.
  10. Explain in detail the concept of RF power measurement. Carry out the RF power measurement using microwave bench
  11. To test and verify Microwave Integrated Circuits using Microstrip trainer kit and finds parameters, and plot the frequency response. 

Previous Years Questions

Practical/ Oral Exam Questions


Assignment 1Assignment 2
Assignment 3Assignment 4
Assignment 5Assignment 6

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Created by Sujit Wagh on 2017/06/14 21:14