# Antenna and Wave Propagation

Updated on 2017/06/27 09:33

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Antenna or aerial, is an electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. The first antennas were built in 1888 by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in his pioneering experiments to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James Clerk Maxwell.
Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel.
In this course you will learn details of antenna components, their uses, modes of wave propogation and related atmospheric dynamics.

## Overview

Antenna and Wave Propagation

AbbreviationAWP
Course

Third Year, Semester II

ENTC

Credits

Examination Scheme

 Phase I: In Semester Assessment 30 Phase II: End Semester Examination 70
LanguageEnglish

## Course Objectives

• To understand the applications of electromagnetic engineering.
• To formulate and solve the Helmholtz wave equation and solve it for Uniform plane
wave
• To analyze and understand the Uniform plane wave propagation in various media
• To solve the electric field and magnetic fields for a given wire antenna.

## Course Outcomes

After successfully completing the course students will be able to:

• Formulate the wave equation and solve it for uniform plane wave
• Analyze the given wire antenna and its radiation characteristics
• Identify the suitable antenna for a given communication system

## Syllabus and Notes

### Unit 1: Uniform Plane Waves

• Maxwell Equations in phasor form, Wave Equation, Uniform Plane wave in Homogeneous, free space, dielectric, conducting medium
• Polarization: Linear, circular & Elliptical polarization, unpolarized wave
• Reflection of plane waves, Normal incidence, oblique incidence, Electromagnetic Power and Poynting theorem and vector

### Unit 2: Wave Propagation

• Attenuation over reflecting surface, Effect of earth's curvature
• Ground, sky & space wave propagations
• Structure of atmosphere
• Characteristics of ionized regions
• Effects of earth's magnetic field
• Virtual height, MUF, Skip distance
• Ionospheric abnormalities
• Multi-hoppropagation
• Characteristics of Wireless Channel: Fading, Multipath delay spread, Coherence Bandwidth, and Coherence Time

### Unit 3: Antenna Fundamentals

• Introduction, Types of Antenna, Radiation Mechanism
• Antenna Terminology: Radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, directivity, gain, antenna efficiency, half power beam width, bandwidth, antenna polarization, input impedance, antenna radiation efficiency, effective length, effective area, reciprocity
• Radiation Integrals: Vector potentials A, J, F, M, Electric and magnetic fields electric and magnetic current sources, solution of inhomogeneous vector potential wave equation, far field radiation

### Unit 4: Wire Antennas

[Main Page: Wire Antennas]

• Analysis of Linear and Loop antennas: Infinitesimal dipole, small dipole, and finite length dipole half wave length dipole, small circular loop antenna
• Complete Analytical treatment of all these elements

### Unit 5: Antenna Arrays

[Main Page: Antenna Arrays]

• Antenna Arrays: Two element array, pattern multiplication N-element linear array, uniform amplitude and spacing, broad side and end-fire array, N-element array: Uniform spacing, non-uniform amplitude, array factor, binomial and DolphTchebyshev array
• Planar Array, Circular Array, Log Periodic Antenna, YagiUda Antenna Array

### Unit 6: Antennas and Applications

[Main Page: Antennas and Applications]

Structural details, dimensions, radiation pattern, specifications, features and applications of following Antennas:

• Hertz & Marconi antennas
• V-Antenna, Rhombic antenna, TW antennas, Loop antenna, Whip antenna
• Biconical, Helical, Horn, Slot, Microstrip, Turnstile, Super turnstile & Lens antennas, Antennas with parabolic reflectors

## Previous Years Question Papers

Previous Years Questions

## References

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Created by Vishal E on 2017/05/02 19:57

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